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A CLOSELY RELATED STORY
BETWEEN THE WOMEN AND THE NILE RIVER.
THEIR NAMES ARE NADIA, FELLY, FREDA, MESKEREM...
THEIR LIFES ARE WRITTEN ALONG THIS LEGENDARY RIVER.
Where is the source (or the sources) of the Nile located?
Since ancient times, this is a mystery.
The origin of the Nile river has always excited
story-tellers and explorers imagination.
TO THE SOURCES
OF THE WHITE NILE
The Nile is the longest river in the world. Its two main tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, meet in Khartoum, Sudan.
For some people, the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region or in Lake Victoria, or comes further upstream, from Burundi...
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Where is the source (or the sources) of the Nile located?
THE MYSTERY REMAINS OVER THE SOURCE(S). MULTIPLE EXPEDITIONS HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED TO DISCOVER THEM.

Since ancient times, the Nile sources have been debated. Do they come from an inland sea, from the peaks of a mountain range or from a large and distant lake? Strabo (geographer), Vitruvius (architect) and Pliny (writer and naturalist), all suggested different theories based on routes that Roman troops, sent by Nero and Vespasian, unsuccessfully attempted to explore.

Ptolemy, a Greek geographer, established the first maps in the 2nd century. His maps were closer to those that we can access nowadays. Back then, the Greek believes that the snowy mountains, known as “Mountains of the Moon”, feed the lakes which provided the water and feed the two rivers. These two rivers form a single stream which flows all the way to Abyssinia. British explorations in the nineteenth century confirmed the existence of the White Nile which they found in the foothills of Kilimanjaro and in the vicinity of Lake Victoria. They also located the Blue Nile, originating at Lake Tana, in North Ethiopia at an altitude of 1,850 metres.

EVEN FURTHER FROM OTHER SOURCES

Lake Victoria is itself fed by many small rivers. The Nile would even have a most distant headwater source from his mouth. Going in search of the source has become a new Holy Grail quest for many explorers. In 1937, Dr. Burkhart Waldecker discovered a source in Burundi, near the town of Rutovu. It is the southernmost source of the Nile.

Located in the heart of the Rift Valley, the White Nile provides about 20% of the flow of the Nile River which is formed in Khartoum at the confluence of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia.
TO ITS ORIGIN AT LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA,
THE NILE IS CALLED THE BLUE NILE.
STRANGE NAME AS THE WATERS OF THAT RIVER GET DARKER TAKING AWAY THE BLACK SILT IN ITS BED, SO NECESSARY FOR FARMERS.
TO THE SOURCES
OF THE BLUE NILE
The Ethiopian Nile tributary is called the Blue Nile.
It once made the Ethiopian kingdom of Axum wealth. Nowadays, it makes all hopes for an Ethiopian development possible. But at what price? The future Dam of the Renaissance will cause displacement and will drastically change many lives. The residents and inhabitants of the river will directly be impacted..
TO WATCH THE VIDEOS
KAMPALA La mégalopole See the slideshow
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THE NILE: AT THE HEART OF ETHIOPIA RENEWAL
THE FAMINE OF THE 1980s SEEMS TO BELONG TO THE PAST. TODAY, ETHIOPIA SHOWS AN INCREDIBLE GROWTH AND EXPECTS TO BEFENIT FROM THE WEALTH OF THE NILE.

The terrible famine of the early 80's made a mark on Ethiopia image. Today, the country has changed and is not the same. Hailed as "African's Lion", the country knows a steady economic growth of nearly 10% for 10 years. It is one of the highest on the continent. To continue along those lines, the government announced a major development of its infrastructure over the next five years. At the heart of these construction sites, the operation of its hydroelectric potential. A strategic project, the Renaissance Dam, is expected to disrupt the management of the Nile waters. Egypt sees the project as a threat. The Blue Nile, with its source at Lake Tana in northern Ethiopia, is indeed the biggest arm of the Nile. It provides 80% of the pharaohs' land water.

EGYPTIAN DOMINATION THREATENED

Ethiopian Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana and is the biggest arm of the Nile river. It provides 80% of the water to the downstream countries.

In 1959, an agreement grants Egypt and Sudan the right to use almost all of the Nile waters. Ethiopia is not, at that time, even mentioned on that agreement. Fifty years later, the country claims its fair share. In 2010, a Cooperative Framework Agreement is signed in Entebbe. Today, six countries (Uganda, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Ethiopia), among the 11 of the Nile Basin, have signed the agreement which calls into question the historical quotas. It is strongly opposed by Sudan and Egypt in particular. By launching, in 2011, the construction of the Renaissance Dam, Ethiopia is expressing its determination to benefit from its resource.

According to the Greek historian Herodotus (fifth century BC), "Egypt is a gift of the Nile." How much time would it be that way? Proud and eager to exploit this resource, Ethiopians awaiting the construction of the dam as a promise of an economic development. They also hope to play a new political role in the region.
THE REGION OF NUBIA WAS STRETCHED FROM NORTHERN SUDAN TO SOUTHERN EGYPT. 100,000 NUBIANS WERE DISPLACED IN 1963-1964 AFTER THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ASWAN DAM. THEY TAKE WITH THEM NEARLY 4000 YEARS OF HISTORY AND TRADITIONS.
Ancient NubiaAncient Nubia no longer exists as a country. This legendary land was stretched from Khartoum, the current capital of Sudan, to Aswan in Southern Egypt. For a long time, its subsoil rich in gold has attracted interests. TO WATCH THE VIDEOS
KAMPALA La mégalopole See the slideshow
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ANCIENT NUBIA OR "THE GOLD COUNTRY"
LOCATED IN UPPER EGYPT, THE NUBIAN NATION ONCE POWERFUL AND RICH, WAS ENGULFED DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ASWAN DAM. WITH IT, A PART OF THE NUBIAN HERITAGE HAS GONE.

The history of Nubians can be traced back to the Paleolithic Period. Ancient Nubia extended from Khartoum (Sudan) to Elephantine; the island located just before the Aswan High Dam (Egypt). This arid region is crossed by six cataracts, rocky constrictions that transform water in rapids difficult to navigate. It takes its name from "nub" which means "gold" in Pharaonic language. At that time, the soil of Ancient Nubia abounded in that precious metal.

In ancient times, many women have ruled this desert kingdom, under the title of candace "queen" in Cushitic. The most famous is Amanishakheto who, 20 BC, led an offensive against the Roman legions in Egypt.

100,000 PEOPLE DISPLACED IN THE '60s

With the completion of the Aswan Dam in the early '60s, 100,000 heirs of this tradition were moved. Engulfed by the waters of Lake Nasser, result of the dam construction, the culture of Ancient Nubia and the memory of the warrior queens are partly stored in the Aswan museum.

Nubian people in Egypt have been relocated to Kom Ombo and Esna a few kilometers north of Aswan. Among the 100,000 displaced people, some have chosen to return to the land of their ancestors many years later. This is the case of Haicha Osman, a young farmer, who has relocated near Abu Simbel.
IT IS AT THE END OF ITS WAY
THAT THE RIVER IS THE MOST ABUNDANT.
THE NILE DELTA, FERTILE OASIS AT THE DESERT GATES,
HAS ALWAYS FED THE EGYPTIANS.
NILE DELTA The Nile Delta is Egypt's breadbasket: it is more than 40% of the agricultural production and two thirds of the Egyptian population live there.
But today, the Delta is threatened by global warming and by a water sharing with the countries upriver. An unprecedented change in the Nile and Egyptians' history.
TO WATCH THE VIDEOS
KAMPALA La mégalopole See the slideshow
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THE NILE DELTA: BREADBASKET OF EGYPT
SINCE ANCIENT TIMES, THE NILE IS THE WEALTH OF EGYPT. BUT TODAY, THE DOMINATION OF THE COUNTRY ON THE RIVER IS CHALLENGED.

"Egypt is a gift of the Nile" said Herodotus in the fifth century BCE. In Antiquity, floods gave religious ceremonies and the life of people its tempo. It was also along the Nile that the cradle of Moses was found and the child saved according to the Bible.

Today nothing has changed. If the contemporary Nile is controlled, its shores are still the lifeline that runs through Egypt, where live 95% of the Egyptian population. The river covers almost all the country water needs.

THE AWAKENING OF UPSTREAM COUNTRIES

Located in the latter part of the Nile, Egypt has always sought to protect its water resources. British settlers imposed a beneficial sharing for Egyptians ... In 1959, a treaty provides Sudan and Egypt an understanding on almost all of the resource but forget to mention Ethiopia.

The construction of the Aswan Dam, in 1971, is a way for Egypt to establish its water control and to dominate the Nile rushing floods.

But the geopolitics of the Nile is changing. Upstream countries depend on the water river to develop their agricultural potential. But, at the same time, they are threatening water resources in Egypt. In 1999, the Nile Basin Initiative is created. However, the dialogue between the 11 countries sharing the river is difficult. In 2010, they signed a Cooperative Framework Agreement in Entebbe. It challenges the Egyptian domination on the Nile.

Another threat on the land of the Pharaohs is identified. In fact, if the sea rises one meter the next 30 years because of global warming, 6 million people could be displaced from the Delta. The saltwater intrusion in this area is already causing problems to farmers.
Janet
Freda
FELLY
Felly vit de la pêche au Lac Albert. Depuis quelques années, du pétrole a été découvert sous et au bord du lac. Felly s'inquiète des changements à venir mais espère retirer des contreparties. Son plus grand souhait : avoir accès à l'eau du robinet.
Aux sources du nil blanc